Recently I have blogged about how to create a "poor man’s dyndns" service using the global discovery system of Syncthing. Since there have been changes in the global discovery system, my awesome shell script did not work any more…​ I just decided to rewrite the whole crap in Python (and Norbert helped a lot!).

The repository is located on Github; as usual I will explain the current code using the awesome asciidoctor features. The code is extracted from commit `c6454a6`; it is not completely polished, but everything works. So time for a blog post!

``````#!/usr/bin/env python3

import argparse
import base64
import ssl
import sys
from hashlib import sha256
from subprocess import run
import shlex
import logging
import requests

# We do the pinning ourselves; we don't need a monkey
# who warns us all the time that we are not safe...
# http://stackoverflow.com/a/28002687
from requests.packages.urllib3.exceptions import InsecureRequestWarning  # (1)
requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings(InsecureRequestWarning)

# fingerprint pinning to host
pinning = (  # (2)
(
'discovery-v4-1.syncthing.net',
'SR7AARM-TCBUZ5O-VFAXY4D-CECGSDE-3Q6IZ4G-XG7AH75-OBIXJQV-QJ6NLQA',
),
(
'discovery-v4-2.syncthing.net',
),
(
'discovery-v4-3.syncthing.net',
'VK6HNJ3-VVMM66S-HRVWSCR-IXEHL2H-U4AQ4MW-UCPQBWX-J2L2UBK-NVZRDQZ',
),
(
'discovery-v6-1.syncthing.net',
'SR7AARM-TCBUZ5O-VFAXY4D-CECGSDE-3Q6IZ4G-XG7AH75-OBIXJQV-QJ6NLQA',
),
(
'discovery-v6-2.syncthing.net',
),
(
'discovery-v6-3.syncthing.net',
'VK6HNJ3-VVMM66S-HRVWSCR-IXEHL2H-U4AQ4MW-UCPQBWX-J2L2UBK-NVZRDQZ',
),
)

def _luhn_mod_sum(s):  # (3)
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luhn_mod_N_algorithm
a = 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ234567'
n = len(a)
factor = 1
k = 0
for i in s:
factor = 1 if factor == 2 else 2
remainder = k % n
check_codepoint = (n - remainder) % n
return a[check_codepoint]

def _chunk_str(s, chunk_size):  # (4)
return [s[i:i+chunk_size] for i in range(0, len(s), chunk_size)]

def _hash_cert_bin(cert):  # (5)
v = ssl.PEM_cert_to_DER_cert(cert)
return sha256(v).digest()

def _hash_cert_file(path):  # (6)
with open(path) as f:

def calc_device_id(barray):  # (7)
s = ''.join([chr(a) for a in base64.b32encode(barray)][:52])
c = _chunk_str(s, 13)
k = ''.join(['%s%s' % (cc, _luhn_mod_sum(cc)) for cc in c])
return '-'.join(_chunk_str(k, 7))

def verify_host(host, exp_fp):  # (8)
cert = ssl.get_server_certificate((host, 443))
fp = calc_device_id(_hash_cert_bin(cert))
if fp == exp_fp:
return True
return False

#
# Commands
#
def cmd_announce(args):  # (9)
cert = shlex.quote(args.cert)
key = shlex.quote(args.key)

logging.debug('Using certificate: {}'.format(cert))
logging.debug('Using key: {}'.format(key))

for mapping in pinning:
disco_url = 'https://' + mapping[0] + '/v2/' + '?id=' + mapping[1]

try:
if verify_host(*mapping) is False:
raise RuntimeError

r = requests.post(  # (11)
disco_url,
verify=False,
cert=(cert, key),
)

# requests does logging through the enabled logging module
except OSError:
continue
except requests.exceptions.ConnectionError:
continue

if r.status_code != 204:
logging.info('Announce failed')
logging.debug(r.text)
continue

def cmd_request(args):  # (12)
device_id = calc_device_id(_hash_cert_file(args.cert))
request_url = 'https://announce.syncthing.net/v2/'

# FIXME: Use urljoin and friends here.
r = requests.get(request_url + '?device=' + device_id, verify=False)
if r.status_code != 200:
logging.info('No device found!')
logging.debug(r.text)
exit(1)

ip = r.text.split(':')[5].rsplit('/')[2]
print(ip)

def cmd_gencert(args):  # (13)
run([
'openssl',
'req',
'-x509',
'-newkey',
'rsa:4096',
'-keyout',
'key.pem',
'-out',
'cert.pem',
'-nodes',
])

def cmd_fingerprint(args):  # (14)
device_id = calc_device_id(_hash_cert_file(args.cert))
print(device_id)

def logging_init(loglevel):  # (15)
# From python docs. No magic stackoverflow involved. :)
# https://docs.python.org/3/howto/logging.html#logging-to-a-file
numeric_level = getattr(logging, loglevel.upper(), None)
if not isinstance(numeric_level, int):
print('Invalid log level: "{}"'.format(loglevel))
exit(1)

logging.basicConfig(
format='%(asctime)s %(levelname)s: %(message)s',
level=numeric_level,
)

def parse_args():
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
'-c',
'--cert',
default='./cert.pem',
help='Use this certificate [default: ./cert.pem]',
)
'-k',
'--key',
default='./key.pem',
help='Use this private key [default: ./key.pem]',
)
'-l',
metavar='LEVEL',
type=str,
default='WARNING',
help='CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING [default], INFO, DEBUG'
)

'announce',
aliases=('ann',),
help='Announce IP to the Syncthing discovery system',
)
parser_announce.set_defaults(func=cmd_announce)

'request',
aliases=('req',),
help='Query the ip of a given device',
)
parser_request.set_defaults(func=cmd_request)

'gencert',
aliases=('gc',),
help='Generate a certificate',
)
parser_gencert.set_defaults(func=cmd_gencert)

'fingerprint',
aliases=('fp',),
help='Print the fingerprint of a given certificate',
)
'cert',
help='The path to the certificate file',
)
parser_fingerprint.set_defaults(func=cmd_fingerprint)

return parser.parse_args()

def main():
args = parse_args()
logging_init(args.l)
logging.debug('Invoked with args: {}'.format(args))

if hasattr(args, 'func'):
args.func(args)

if __name__ == '__main__':
main()``````
1. This one was really annoying. `requests` prints a warning that we do a potentially insecure https request. I know that, BUT I do certificate pinning myself. So I am safe and I just wanted to get rid of the annoying warning.

2. This is the hashtable, that maps discovery servers to their certificate id. Later in the code I download the certificate from the server and I check, whether it matches using the device ids (which is nothing more than a hash).

3. Luhn mod N algorithm. Syncthing device IDs are explained in the official documentation. In general, it is SHA-256 hash of the certificate data in DER form plus check digits every 7 chars. This method implements the Luhn mod N algorithm.

4. Divide a string into equal slices of N chars. It is needed in a few places in the code.

5. Generate the SHA256 sum of a certificate in binary data.

6. Generate the SHA256 sum of a cretificate, that is stored at the given filepath. I have chosen to devide that method into two separate methods, because this way it avoids code duplication within the source code.

7. Convert the certificate into a Syncthing device id string according to the specs and utilizing the previously presented helper functions.

8. That’s the custom implementation of certificate pinning. Since the Syncthing device ids are based on a SHA256 hash, we can be sure that they are free of collisions. So, the device ids of the global discovery servers are stored in advance (since they are well known). When a connection to a discovery server is established, the fingerprint of the presented certificate is verified by converting it into a device id and comparing that value with the hard coded device ids in the code. When they match the discovery server is authenticated and can be trusted.

9. The implementation of the announce command. That function is called by the command line interface code (= `argparse`).

10. An actual fake payload. We have wasted hours of our lifetime by figuring out why our scripts do not work. The HTTP POST request to the announce servers indeed need a payload…​ So let’s set the port to some value, e.g. `1234`.

11. That is the call to `requests.post()` that transfers the data to the announce server. Note that `verify` is `False`, as the custom `verify_host()` method is called directly before the HTTP POST call. When the host cannot be verified an error is raised.

12. Implementation of the `request` command. It is still a bit ugly, but it works. It queries the discovery servers with a HTTP GET presenting a device id. A json response is given. When the device id was announced before, its current ip address is printed on stdout.

13. A shortcut for the `openssl` utility to create a certificate.

14. The implementation of `fingerprint`. The fingerprint of a given certificate file is computed and printed on stdout.

15. Initialize logging; the most interesting part is that the `requests` module can use the logging as well. It emits log messages through the configured logger, which is nice!

## See it in Action!

I have run the script in debug log level, in order to show what’s going on.

Announce the certificate:

```$./st-ddns.py -l debug announce 2016-08-04 17:29:25,244 DEBUG: Invoked with args: Namespace(cert='./cert.pem', func=<function cmd_announce at 0x7fdddcfa4950>, key='./key.pem', l='debug') 2016-08-04 17:29:25,244 DEBUG: Using certificate: ./cert.pem 2016-08-04 17:29:25,244 DEBUG: Using key: ./key.pem 2016-08-04 17:29:25,992 INFO: Starting new HTTPS connection (1): discovery-v4-1.syncthing.net 2016-08-04 17:29:27,063 DEBUG: "POST /v2/?id=SR7AARM-TCBUZ5O-VFAXY4D-CECGSDE-3Q6IZ4G-XG7AH75-OBIXJQV-QJ6NLQA HTTP/1.1" 204 0 2016-08-04 17:29:27,936 INFO: Starting new HTTPS connection (1): discovery-v4-2.syncthing.net 2016-08-04 17:29:29,170 DEBUG: "POST /v2/?id=DVU36WY-H3LVZHW-E6LLFRE-YAFN5EL-HILWRYP-OC2M47J-Z4PE62Y-ADIBDQC HTTP/1.1" 204 0 2016-08-04 17:29:30,496 INFO: Starting new HTTPS connection (1): discovery-v4-3.syncthing.net 2016-08-04 17:29:32,353 DEBUG: "POST /v2/?id=VK6HNJ3-VVMM66S-HRVWSCR-IXEHL2H-U4AQ4MW-UCPQBWX-J2L2UBK-NVZRDQZ HTTP/1.1" 204 0``` Find out our fingerprint: ```$ ./st-ddns.py fingerprint ./cert.pem
4EDVVKF-KPXXTJH-YHSIPVA-WVB4FFP-R3IV2IB-GJOOSQG-2P7WN24-RYS62Q3```

Query (from another device) the ip from the discovery servers:

```\$ ./st-ddns.py -l debug req 4EDVVKF-KPXXTJH-YHSIPVA-WVB4FFP-R3IV2IB-GJOOSQG-2P7WN24-RYS62Q3
2016-08-04 17:31:32,262 DEBUG: Invoked with args: Namespace(ID='4EDVVKF-KPXXTJH-YHSIPVA-WVB4FFP-R3IV2IB-GJOOSQG-2P7WN24-RYS62Q3', cert='./cert.pem', func=<function cmd_request at 0x7f6f68ecc9d8>, key='./key.pem', l='debug')
2016-08-04 17:31:32,262 DEBUG: Reading certificate: ./cert.pem
2016-08-04 17:31:32,265 INFO: Starting new HTTPS connection (1): announce.syncthing.net
2016-08-04 17:31:32,673 DEBUG: "GET /v2/?device=4EDVVKF-KPXXTJH-YHSIPVA-WVB4FFP-R3IV2IB-GJOOSQG-2P7WN24-RYS62Q3 HTTP/1.1" 200 81
80.187.98.234```
 Tip Once announced, it takes a few minutes until the server answers with the correct ip.

It works again!